Maps of Spanish Dialect Pronunciation Features

Click links below to see maps of areas with features of Spanish dialect pronunciation described.

(Versión en español aquí.)

/b, d, g/ → [b, d, g] / {$, C, j, w}_     /b, d, g/ pronounced occlusively at the start of breath group or after consonants and semivowels.
/ʧ/ → [ ʃ ]     Unvoiced palatal affricate /ʧ/ pronounced as unvoiced grooved palatal fricative [ ʃ ].
/l/, /ɾ/ → [C] / _(+)C     Syllable-final /l/ and /ɾ/ assimilated to following consonant.
/l/, /ɾ/ → [ j ] / _{#, (+)C}     Pronunciation of syllable-final /l/ and /ɾ/ as semivowel [ j ].
/ʎ / → [ʎ]     Palatal lateral /ʎ/ is a different phoneme from the voiced slit fricative /y/.
/ʎ / → [ʒ]     Palatal lateral /ʎ/ is a different phoneme from /y/ and is pronounced as a voiced grooved palatal fricative [ʒ].
/n/ → [ŋ] / _{+V, #}     Word-final /n/ pronounced as velar nasal [ŋ] before vowels or pause.
/n/ → [m] / _{+V, #}     Word-final /n/ pronounced as labial nasal [m] before vowels or pause.
{/b/, /p/} → [k] / _{s, t}; /g, m, n/ → [ŋ] / _N     Labials /b, p/ pronounced as [k] before /s, t/. /g, m, n/ pronounced as velar nasal [ŋ] before nasals.
/r/ → [xɾ]     Trill pronounced as velar fricative followed by flap: [xɾ].
/r/ → {[ɹ̝:]}     Trill is assibilated, sometimes unvoiced. In many areas, /tɾ/ may also be assibilated.
/r/ → [r̥]     Unvoiced trill.
/r/ → {[ʀ], [ʀ̥]}     Trill pronounced as velar vibrant [ʀ], sometimes unvoiced.
/ɾ/ → [l] / _{#, (+)C}     Pronunciation of syllable-final /ɾ/ as [l].
/s/ → {[h], [Ø]} / _{C, +}     Aspiration or elision of syllable-final /s/.
/s/ → [s̺] / _{#, (+)V, (+)C̥}; /s/ → [z̺] / _(+)C̬     Apicoalveolar /s/.
/s/ → [z] / _+V     Word-final /s/ voiced [z] before vowels.
V̽ → [V̥], [Ø] / {C̥_C̥V́, V́C̥_C̥}     Devoicing or elision of unstressed vowels between unvoiced consonants, before or after stressed syllables.
Vn → Ṽ / _{C, +}     Elision of syllable-final /n/ and nasalization of preceding vowel [ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ].
/x/ → [h]     Unvoiced velar slit fricative /x/ pronounced glottally [h].
/x/ → [ç] / _{e, i}     Unvoiced velar slit fricative pronounced alveolarly [ç] before front vowels /e, i/.
/x/ → [Χ]     Unvoiced velar slit fricative pronounced uvularly [Χ].
/ʝ/ → [ʒ], [ ʃ ]     Voiced slit fricative /ʝ/ pronounced as grooved fricative [ʒ], sometimes unvoiced [ ʃ ].
/ʝ/ → [Ø] / {e, i}_, _{e, i}     Voiced slit fricative /ʝ/ elided when next to front vowels /e, i/.
/ʝ/ → [ʤ]     Voiced slit fricative /ʝ/ pronounced as voiced palatal affricate [ʤ].
/θ/ → [θ̟ ] / _{#, (+)V, (+)C̥}; /θ/ → [ð̟ ] / _(+)C̬     Interdental slit fricative /θ/ is a different phoneme from the dental grooved fricative /s/.

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